Human liver segments: role of cryptic liver lobes and vascular physiology in the development of liver veins and left-right asymmetry

Jill P. J. M. Hikspoors, Mathijs M. J. P. Peeters, Nutmethee Kruepunga, Hayelom K. Mekonen, Greet M. C. Mommen, S. Eleonore Köhler & Wouter H. Lamers

Couinaud based his well-known subdivision of the liver into (surgical) segments on the branching order of portal veins and the location of hepatic veins. However, both segment boundaries and number remain controversial due to an incomplete understanding of the role of liver lobes and vascular physiology on hepatic venous development. Human embryonic livers (5–10 weeks of development) were visualized with Amira 3D-reconstruction and Cinema 4D-remodeling software.