Welcome to the Amira-Avizo Software Use Case Gallery

Below you will find a collection of use cases of our 3D data visualization and analysis software. These use cases include scientific publications, articles, papers, posters, presentations or even videos that show how Amira-Avizo Software is used to address various scientific and industrial research topics.

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Porosity and Structure of Hierarchically Porous Ni/Al2O3 Catalysts for CO2 Methanation

Porosity and Structure of Hierarchically Porous Ni/Al2O3 Catalysts for CO2 Methanation

Carbon dioxide emissions must be reduced significantly to limit the negative consequences of climate change. For this reason, fossil fuels must be replaced by renewable energy sources. However, wind and solar energy, for example, are sporadic sources and, thus, not inevitably available when needed. This results in periods of energy surplus and shortage, which are not necessarily predictable. Hence, energy storage concepts are required to compensate for these fluctuations, thereby retaining en... Read more

Sebastian Weber, Ken L. Abel, Ronny T. Zimmermann, Xiaohui Huang, Jens Bremer, Liisa K. Rihko-Struckmann, Darren Batey, Silvia Cipiccia, Juliane Titus, David Poppitz, Christian Kübel, Kai Sundmacher, Roger Gläser, Thomas L. Sheppard

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Investigating the microstructure and mechanical behaviour of simulant “lava-like” fuel containing materials from the Chernobyl reactor unit 4 meltdown

Investigating the microstructure and mechanical behaviour of simulant “lava-like” fuel containing materials from the Chernobyl reactor unit 4 meltdown

Decommissioning of the damaged Chernobyl nuclear reactor Unit 4 is a top priority for the global community. Before such operations begin, it is crucial to understand the behaviour of the hazardous materials formed during the accident. Since those materials formed under extreme and mostly unquantified conditions, modelling alone is insufficient to accurately predict their physical, chemical and, predominantly, mechanical behaviour. Meanwhile, knowledge of the mechanical characteristics of thos... Read more

C.Paraskevoulakos, J.P.Forna-Kreutzer, K.R.Hallam, C.P.Jones, T.B.Scott, C.Gausse, D.J.Bailey, C.A.Simpson, D.Liu, C.Reinhard, C.L.Corkhill, M.Mostafavi

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Influence of Isothermal Holding on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Electron Beam Welded Dissimilar Inconel 718/ATI 718Plus® Joint

Influence of Isothermal Holding on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Electron Beam Welded Dissimilar Inconel 718/ATI 718Plus® Joint

Inconel 718 (IN718) is the most popular precipitation-strengthened nickel-based superalloy introduced by the Huntington Alloys Division of INCO in 1959 (Ref Read more

Oskar Dziuba, Grzegorz Cempura, Agnieszka Wusatowska-Sarnek & Adam Kruk

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X-ray Micro-Computed Tomography of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells: What is the Representative Elementary Area?

X-ray Micro-Computed Tomography of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells: What is the Representative Elementary Area?

With the growing use of X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) datasets for modelling of transport properties, comes the need to define the representative elementary volume (REV) if considering three dimensions or the representative elementary area (REA) if considering two dimensions. The resolution used for imaging must be suited to the features of interest in the sample and the region-of-interest must be sufficiently large to capture key information. Polymer electrolyte fuel cells have a hier... Read more

Jennifer Hack et al 2020 J. Electrochem.

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An Anisotropic Microstructure Evolution in a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode

An Anisotropic Microstructure Evolution in a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode

A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is an electrochemical device that converts the chemical energy of hydrogen directly into electricity. A single cell usually has a form of a flat plate in which an impervious and dense ion-conducting electrolyte is sandwiched between two porous catalytic electrodes: an anode and a cathode. Fuel is fed to the anode side, and the air is supplied to the cathode. The gasses cannot mix to avoid unproductive combustion. Instead, gasses hit catalyst material, lose their... Read more

Grzegorz Brus, Hiroshi Iwai, Janusz S. Szmyd

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Three-dimensional thermal stress analysis of the re-oxidized Ni-YSZ anode functional layer in solid oxide fuel cells

Three-dimensional thermal stress analysis of the re-oxidized Ni-YSZ anode functional layer in solid oxide fuel cells

Nickel-yttria-stabilized zirconia (Ni-YSZ) cermet is widely used as an anode material in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs); however, Ni re-oxidation causes critical problems due to volume expansion, which causes high thermal stress. We fabricated a Ni-YSZ anode functional layer (AFL), which is an essential component in high-performance SOFCs, and re-oxidized it to investigate the related three-dimensional (3D) microstructural and thermo-mechanical effects. A 3D model of the re-oxidized AFL ... Read more

Jun Woo Kim, Kiho Bae, Hyun Joong Kim, Ji-won Son, Namkeun Kim, Stefan Stenfelt, Fritz B. Prinz, Joon Hyung Shim

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A three-dimensional heterogeneity analysis of electrochemical energy conversion in SOFC anodes using electron nanotomography and mathematical modeling

A three-dimensional heterogeneity analysis of electrochemical energy conversion in SOFC anodes using electron nanotomography and mathematical modeling

In this paper a fully three dimensional, multiphase, micro-scale solid oxide fuel cellanode transport phenomena numerical model is proposed and verified. The Butler-Volmer model was combined with empirical relations for conductivity and diffusivity – notably the Fuller-Shetler-Giddings equation, and the Fickian modelfor transport of gas reagents. FIB-SEM tomography of a commercial SOFC stack anode was performed and the resulting images were processed to acquire input data. ... Read more

Tomasz A. Prokop, Katarzyna Berent, Hiroshi Iwai, Janusz S.Szmyd, Grzegorz Brus

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Evaluating microstructure evolution in an SOFC electrode using digital volume correlation

Evaluating microstructure evolution in an SOFC electrode using digital volume correlation

Degradation mechanisms within solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) during thermal cycling limit operational start-up times and cell lifetime, and must therefore be better understood and mitigated. This work explores such mechanisms using digital volume correlation (DVC) techniques applied to lab-based X-ray tomograms where the microstructural evolution is evaluated during the operational cycling of a Ni–YSZ/YSZ cell. To emulate reduced start-up times, five tomograms were collected over four operat... Read more

T. M. M. Heenan, X. Lu,, D. P. Finegan,, J. Robinson, F. Iacoviello, J. J. Bailey, D. J. L. Brett and P. R. Shearing

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Enhanced Water Management of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells with Additive-Containing Microporous Layers.

Enhanced Water Management of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells with Additive-Containing Microporous Layers.

This work describes the performance improvement of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell with a novel class of microporous layers (MPLs) that incorporates hydrophilic additives: one with 30 μm aluminosilicate fibers and another with multiwalled carbon nanotubes with a domain size of 5 μm. Higher current densities at low potentials were observed for cells with the additive-containing MPLs compared to a baseline cell with a conventional MPL, which correlate with improvements in water management. Th... Read more

Dusan Spernjak, Rangachary Mukundan, Rodney L. Borup, Liam Connolly, Benjamin Zackin, Vincent De Andrade, Michael Wojcik, Dilworth Y. Parkinson, David Jacobson, Daniel Seth Hussey, Karren L More, Thomas Chan, Adam Z Weber, and Iryna V. Zenyuk

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High performance anode with dendritic porous structure for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells

High performance anode with dendritic porous structure for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells

A dendritic porous supported microstructure simultaneously creates small pore size and broad gas diffusion pathways in a solid oxide fuel cell anode membrane. This microstructure also achieves pore sizes that reduce with increasing depth within the membrane without increasing the structure tortuosity. Such a microstructure supplies high triple phase boundary density, fast gas diffusion and low polarization resistance. Here we characterise the performance of a porous anode with such a dendriti... Read more

Xin Shao, William D.A. Rickard, Dehua Dong, Huu Dang , Martin Saunders, Aaron Dodd, Gordon Parkinson, Chun-Zhu Li

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A numerical analysis of unsteady transport phenomena in a Direct Internal Reforming Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

A numerical analysis of unsteady transport phenomena in a Direct Internal Reforming Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

Growing popularity and rapid development of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) stem for their potential to become a gamechanger in the field of clean power generation technologies.

In this paper, a transient microstructure-oriented numerical simulation of a planar Direct Internal Reforming Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (DIR-SOFC) is delivered. The performance criteria in a direct steam reforming for a fuel starvation scenario are analyzed in order to optimize the underlying process. The proposed t... Read more

Maciej Chalusiak, Michal Wrobel, Marcin Mozdzierz, Katarzyna Berent, Janusz S. Szmyd, Shinji Kimijima, Grzegorz Brus

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A novel approach for the quantification of inhomogeneous 3D current distribution in fuel cell electrodes

A novel approach for the quantification of inhomogeneous 3D current distribution in fuel cell electrodes

The electrode microstructural properties significantly influence the efficiency and durability of many electrochemical devices including solid oxide fuel cells. Despite the possibility of simulating the electrochemical phenomena within real three-dimensional microstructures, the potential of such 3D microstructural information has not yet been fully exploited. We introduce here a completely new methodology for the advanced characterization of inhomogeneous current distribution base... Read more

A.Bertei, V.Yufit, F.Tariq, N.P.Brandon

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4D imaging of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell catalyst layers by soft X-ray spectro-tomography

4D imaging of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell catalyst layers by soft X-ray spectro-tomography

4D imaging – the three-dimensional distributions of chemical species determined using multi-energy X-ray tomography – of cathode catalyst layers of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEM-FC) has been measured by scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) spectro-tomography at the C 1s and F 1s edges. In order to monitor the effects of radiation damage on the composition and 3D structure of the perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomer, the same volume was measu... Read more

Juan Wu, Lis G.A.Melo, Xiaohui Zhu, Marcia M.West, Viatcheslav Berejnov, Darija Susac, Juergen Stumper, Adam P.Hitchcock

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Mesoscale characterization of local property distributions in heterogeneous electrodes

Mesoscale characterization of local property distributions in heterogeneous electrodes

The performance of electrochemical devices depends on the three-dimensional (3D) distributions of microstructural features in their electrodes. Several mature methods exist to characterize 3D microstructures over the microscale (tens of microns), which are useful in understanding homogeneous electrodes. However, methods that capture mesoscale (hundreds of microns) volumes at appropriate resolution (tens of nm) are lacking, though they are needed to understand more common, less ideal electrode... Read more

Tim Hsu, William K. Epting, Rubayyat Mahbub, Noel T. Nuhfer, Sudip Bhattachary, Yinkai Lei, Herbert M. Miller, Paul R. Ohodnicki, Kirk R. Gerdes, Harry W. Abernathy, Gregory A. Hackett, Anthony D. Rollett, Marc De Graef, Shawn Litster, Paul A. Salvador

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Investigation of Hot Pressed Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Assemblies via Xray Computed Tomography

Investigation of Hot Pressed Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Assemblies via Xray Computed Tomography

The hot pressing process for fabricating membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) has been widely adopted, yet little is known of its effects on the microstructural properties of the different components of the MEA. In particular, the interaction of the electrolyte, electrode and gas diffusion layer (GDL) due to lamination is difficult to probe as conventional imaging techniques cannot access the internal structure of the MEA. Here, a novel approach is used, which combines characterisation of hot... Read more

Q. Meyer, N. Mansor, F. Iacoviello, P.L. Cullen, R. Jervis, D. Finegan, C. Tan, J. Bailey, P. R. Shearing, D. J. L. Brett

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Characterisation of the diffusion properties of metal foam hybrid flow-fields for fuel cells using optical flow visualisation and X-ray computed tomography

Characterisation of the diffusion properties of metal foam hybrid flow-fields for fuel cells using optical flow visualisation and X-ray computed tomography

The flow distribution behaviour of open-cell metallic foam fuel cell flow-fields are evaluated using ex-situ optical analysis and X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT). Five different manifold designs are evaluated and flow distribution and pressure drop ... Read more

A.Fly, D.Butcher, Q.Meyer, M.Whiteley, A.Spencer, C.Kim, P.R.Shearing, D.J.L.Brett, R.Chen

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3D Reconstruction of Lipid Droplets in the Seed of Brassica napus

3D Reconstruction of Lipid Droplets in the Seed of Brassica napus

Rapeseed is one of the most important and widely cultured oilseed crops for food and nonfood purposes worldwide. Neutral lipids are stored in lipid droplets (LDs) as fuel for germination and subsequent seedling growth. Most of the LD detection in seeds was still in 2D levels, and some of the details might have been lost in previous studies. In the present work, the configuration of LDs in seeds was obtained by confocal imaging combined with 3D reconstruction technology in Brassica napus<... Read more

Yongtai Yin, Liangxing Guo, Kang Chen, Zhenyi Guo, Hongbo Chao, Baoshan Wang, and Maoteng Licorresponding author

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Stochastic reconstruction of carbon fiber paper gas diffusion layers of PEFCs: A comparative study

Stochastic reconstruction of carbon fiber paper gas diffusion layers of PEFCs: A comparative study

Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert the chemical energy of fuels into electrical energy. An ideal option for a wide variety of portable, stationary, and automotive applications is using the polymer electrolyte
fuel cells due to their modular design, high efficiency, and environmental benefits.

A 3D microstructure of the non-woven gas diffusion layers (GDLs) of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) is reconstructed using a stochastic method. For a commercial GDL, ... Read more

Sepehr Sima Afrookhteh, Jalil Jamali, Mohsen Shakeric, Majid Baniassadi

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Real time, in-situ deuteriding of uranium encapsulated in grout; effects of temperature on the uranium-deuterium reaction

Real time, in-situ deuteriding of uranium encapsulated in grout; effects of temperature on the uranium-deuterium reaction

To accurately predict the initiation and evolution of uranium hydride potentially present in nuclear waste containers, studies of simulated conditions are required.

Here, for the first time, the uranium-deuterium reaction was examined in-situ, in real time, whilst within grouted media. A deuterium gas control rig and stainless steelquartz glass reaction cell were configured on a synchrotron beam line to collect X-ray diffraction and X-ray tomography data. It was found that deuteride fo... Read more

C.A. Stitt, C. Paraskevoulakos, N.J. Harker, A. Banos, K.R. Hallam, C.P. Jones, T.B. Scott

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The Application of Hierarchical Structures in Energy Devices: New Insights into the Design of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells with Enhanced Mass Transport

The Application of Hierarchical Structures in Energy Devices: New Insights into the Design of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells with Enhanced Mass Transport

Mass transport can significantly limit the rate of reaction and lead to concentration polarization in electrochemical devices, especially under the conditions of high operating current density.

In this study we investigate hierarchically structured micro-tubular solid
oxide fuel cells (MT-SOFC) fabricated by phase inversion technique and quantitatively assess the mass transport and electrochemical performance improvement compared to a conventional tubular SOFC. We present pioneer... Read more

Xuekun Lu, Tao Li, Antonio Bertei, Jason I S Cho , Thomas M.M. Heenan , Rabuni Mohamad, Kang Li, Dan JL Brett, Paul R Shearing

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In Situ Synthesized La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3−δ–Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95 Nanocomposite Cathodes via a Modified Sol–Gel Process for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

In Situ Synthesized La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3−δ–Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95 Nanocomposite Cathodes via a Modified Sol–Gel Process for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Composite cathodes comprising nanoscale
powders are expected to impart with high specific surface
area and triple phase boundary (TPB) density, which will lead
to better performance.

However, uniformly mixing nanosized heterophase powders remains a challenge due to their high surface energy and thus ease with which they agglomerate into their individual phases during the mixing and sintering
processes. In this study, we successfully synthesized La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe... Read more

Dong Woo Joh, Areum Cha, Jeong Hwa Park, Kyeong Joon Kim, Kyung Taek Bae, Doyeub Kim, Young Ki Choi, Hyegsoon An, Ji Su Shin, Kyung Joong Yoon, and Kang Taek Lee

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