Welcome to the Amira-Avizo Software Use Case Gallery

Below you will find a collection of use cases of our 3D data visualization and analysis software. These use cases include scientific publications, articles, papers, posters, presentations or even videos that show how Amira-Avizo Software is used to address various scientific and industrial research topics.

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Impact of Pore Tortuosity on Electrode Kinetics in Lithium Battery Electrodes: Study in Directionally Freeze-Cast LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA)

Impact of Pore Tortuosity on Electrode Kinetics in Lithium Battery Electrodes: Study in Directionally Freeze-Cast LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA)

The prevailing electrode fabrication method for lithium-ion battery electrodes includes calendering at high pressures to densify the electrode and promote adhesion to the metal current collector.

However, this process increases the tortuosity of the pore network in the primary transport direction and imposes severe tradeoffs between electrode thickness and rate capability. With the aim of understanding the impact of pore tortuosity on electrode kinetics, and enabling cell designs with ... Read more

Benjamin Delattre, Ruhul Amin, Jonathan Sander, Joël De Coninck, Antoni P. Tomsia and Yet-Ming Chiang

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The effect of wetting area in carbon paper electrode on the performance of vanadium redox flow batteries: A three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann study

The effect of wetting area in carbon paper electrode on the performance of vanadium redox flow batteries: A three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann study

The vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) has emerged as a promising technology for large-scale storage of intermittent power generated from renewable energy sources due to its advantages such as scalability, high energy efficiency and low cost. In the current study, a three-dimensional(3D) Lattice Boltzmann model is developed to simulate the transport mechanisms of electrolyte flow, species and charge in the vanadium redox flow battery at the micro pore scale. An electrochemical model using the... Read more

Duo Zhang, Qiong Cai, Oluwadamilola O.Taiwo, Vladimir Yufit, Nigel P.Brandon, Sai Gu

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Multiscale tomographic analysis of the thermal failure of Na-Ion batteries

Multiscale tomographic analysis of the thermal failure of Na-Ion batteries

In recent years, the ability to examine the processes that cause the catastrophic failure of batteries as a result of thermal runaway has improved substantially. In this work, the effect of thermal runaway on the microstructure of the electrodes of a Na-ion battery is examined using X-ray computed tomography for the first time. The thermal failure induced via accelerating rate calorimetry enabled the examination of failed electrodes, which were subsequently compared with fresh s... Read more

Robinson, J. B., Heenan, T. M. M., Jervis, J. R., Tan, C., Kendrick, E., Brett, D. J. L., & Shearing, P. R.

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In situ compression and X-ray computed tomography of flow battery electrodes

In situ compression and X-ray computed tomography of flow battery electrodes

Redox flow batteries offer a potential solution to an increase in renewable energy generation on the grid by offering long-term, large-scale storage and regulation of power. However, they are currently underutilised due to cost and performance issues, many of which are linked to the microstructure of the porous carbon electrodes used. Here, for the first time, we offer a detailed study of the in situ effects of compression on a commercially available carbon felt electrode. Visualisation ... Read more

Rhodri Jervis , Matt D.R. Kok , Tobias P. Neville , Quentin Meyer , Leon D. Brown , Francesco Iacoviello , Jeff T. Gostick , Dan J.L. Brett , Paul R. Shearing

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A three-dimensional heterogeneity analysis of electrochemical energy conversion in SOFC anodes using electron nanotomography and mathematical modeling

A three-dimensional heterogeneity analysis of electrochemical energy conversion in SOFC anodes using electron nanotomography and mathematical modeling

In this paper a fully three dimensional, multiphase, micro-scale solid oxide fuel cellanode transport phenomena numerical model is proposed and verified. The Butler-Volmer model was combined with empirical relations for conductivity and diffusivity – notably the Fuller-Shetler-Giddings equation, and the Fickian modelfor transport of gas reagents. FIB-SEM tomography of a commercial SOFC stack anode was performed and the resulting images were processed to acquire input data. ... Read more

Tomasz A. Prokop, Katarzyna Berent, Hiroshi Iwai, Janusz S.Szmyd, Grzegorz Brus

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X-ray computed tomography comparison of individual and parallel assembled commercial lithium iron phosphate batteries at end of life after high rate cycling

X-ray computed tomography comparison of individual and parallel assembled commercial lithium iron phosphate batteries at end of life after high rate cycling

X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) across multiple length scales is utilized for the first time to investigate the physical abuse of high C-rate pulsed discharge on cells wired individually and in parallel.. Manufactured lithium iron phosphate cells boasting high rate capability were pulse power tested in both wiring conditions with high discharge currents of 10C for a high number of cycles (up to 1200) until end of life (<80% of initial discharge capacity retained). The parallel ass... Read more

Rachel Carter, Brett Huhman, Corey T. Love, Iryna V. Zenyuk

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Evaluating microstructure evolution in an SOFC electrode using digital volume correlation

Evaluating microstructure evolution in an SOFC electrode using digital volume correlation

Degradation mechanisms within solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) during thermal cycling limit operational start-up times and cell lifetime, and must therefore be better understood and mitigated. This work explores such mechanisms using digital volume correlation (DVC) techniques applied to lab-based X-ray tomograms where the microstructural evolution is evaluated during the operational cycling of a Ni–YSZ/YSZ cell. To emulate reduced start-up times, five tomograms were collected over four operat... Read more

T. M. M. Heenan, X. Lu,, D. P. Finegan,, J. Robinson, F. Iacoviello, J. J. Bailey, D. J. L. Brett and P. R. Shearing

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4D visualisation of in situ nano-compression of Li-ion cathode materials to mimic early stage calendering

4D visualisation of in situ nano-compression of Li-ion cathode materials to mimic early stage calendering

Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries operate via electrochemical reactions between positive and negative electrodes, formed by complex porous microstructures. An improved understanding of these materials can lead to a greater insight into the link between microscopic electrode morphology and macroscopic performance. The practice of calendering electrodes after manufacturing has been widely used to increase the volumetric energy density and improve the electrical contact between electrode... Read more

S. R. Daemi,X. Lu, D. Sykes, J. Behnsen, C. Tan, A. Palacios-Padros, J. Cookson, E. Petrucco, P. J. Withers, D. J. L. Brett and P. R. Shearing

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Cryo-STEM mapping of solid–liquid interfaces and dendrites in lithium-metal batteries

Cryo-STEM mapping of solid–liquid interfaces and dendrites in lithium-metal batteries

Solid–liquid interfaces are important in a range of chemical, physical and biological processes but are often not fully understood owing to the lack of high-resolution characterization methods that are compatible with both solid and liquid components. For example, the related processes of dendritic deposition of lithium metal and the formation of solid–electrolyte interphase layers are known to be key determinants of battery safety and performance in high-energy-density lithium-metal bat... Read more

Michael J. Zachman, Zhengyuan Tu, Snehashis Choudhury, Lynden A. Archer & Lena F. Kourkoutis

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Operando Visualization and Multi-scale Tomography Studies of Dendrite Formation and Dissolution in Zinc Batteries

Operando Visualization and Multi-scale Tomography Studies of Dendrite Formation and Dissolution in Zinc Batteries

Alternative battery technologies are required to meet growing energy demands and address the limitations of present technologies. As such, it is necessary to look beyond lithium-ion batteries. Zinc batteries enable high power density while being sourced from ubiquitous and cost-effective materials. This paper presents, for the first time known to the authors, multi-length scale tomography studies of failure mechanisms in zinc batteries with and without commercial microporous separators. In bo... Read more

Vladimir Yufit, Farid Tariq David S. Eastwood Moshiel Biton Billy Wu Peter D. Lee Nigel P. Brandon

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Mesoscale characterization of local property distributions in heterogeneous electrodes

Mesoscale characterization of local property distributions in heterogeneous electrodes

The performance of electrochemical devices depends on the three-dimensional (3D) distributions of microstructural features in their electrodes. Several mature methods exist to characterize 3D microstructures over the microscale (tens of microns), which are useful in understanding homogeneous electrodes. However, methods that capture mesoscale (hundreds of microns) volumes at appropriate resolution (tens of nm) are lacking, though they are needed to understand more common, less ideal electrode... Read more

Tim Hsu, William K. Epting, Rubayyat Mahbub, Noel T. Nuhfer, Sudip Bhattachary, Yinkai Lei, Herbert M. Miller, Paul R. Ohodnicki, Kirk R. Gerdes, Harry W. Abernathy, Gregory A. Hackett, Anthony D. Rollett, Marc De Graef, Shawn Litster, Paul A. Salvador

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Anomalous metal segregation in lithium-rich material provides design rules for stable cathode in lithium-ion battery

Anomalous metal segregation in lithium-rich material provides design rules for stable cathode in lithium-ion battery

Despite the importance of studying the instability of delithiated cathode materials, it remains difficult to underpin the degradation mechanism of lithium-rich cathode materials due to the complication of combined chemical and structural evolutions. Herein, we use state-of-the-art electron microscopy tools, in conjunction with synchrotron X-ray techniques and first-principle calculations to study a 4d-element-containing compound, Li2Ru0.5Mn0.5O3. We find surprisingly, after cycling, ruthenium... Read more

Lin, Ruoqian AU - Hu, Enyuan AU - Liu, Mingjie AU - Wang, Yi AU - Cheng, Hao AU - Wu, Jinpeng AU - Zheng, Jin-Cheng AU - Wu, Qin AU - Bak, Seongmin AU - Tong, Xiao AU - Zhang, Rui AU - Yang, Wanli AU - Persson, Kristin A. AU - Yu, Xiqian AU - Yang, Xiao-Qing AU - Xin, Huolin L. PY

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Visualizing the Carbon Binder Phase of Battery Electrodes in Three Dimensions

Visualizing the Carbon Binder Phase of Battery Electrodes in Three Dimensions

This study presents a technique to directly characterize the carbon and binder domain (CBD) in lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery electrodes in three dimensions and use it to determine the effective transport properties of a LiNi0.33Mn0.33Co0.33O2 (NMC) electrode. X-ray nanocomputed tomography (nano-CT) is used to image an electrode composed solely of carbon and binder, whereas focused ion beam–scanning electron microscopy is used to analyze cross-sect... Read more

Sohrab R. Daemi, Chun Tan, Tobias Volkenandt, Samuel J. Cooper, Anna Palacios-Padros, James Cookson, Dan J. L. Brett, and Paul R. Shearing

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Spatially resolved ultrasound diagnostics of Li-ion battery electrodes

Spatially resolved ultrasound diagnostics of Li-ion battery electrodes

The importance of reliable battery diagnostic systems has grown substantially in recent years as a result of the use of high power Li-ion battery packs in an increasingly diverse range of applications. Here, spatially resolved ultrasound acoustic measurements are used to analyse the condition of Li-ion electrodes. Ultrasonic measurements are performed on a commercial mobile phone battery over the full operating voltage window with the lithiation and delithiation of electrodes o... Read more

James B. Robinson, Maximilian Maier , George Alster , Tomos Compton , Dan J. L. Brett and Paul R. Shearing

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Stochastic reconstruction of carbon fiber paper gas diffusion layers of PEFCs: A comparative study

Stochastic reconstruction of carbon fiber paper gas diffusion layers of PEFCs: A comparative study

Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert the chemical energy of fuels into electrical energy. An ideal option for a wide variety of portable, stationary, and automotive applications is using the polymer electrolyte
fuel cells due to their modular design, high efficiency, and environmental benefits.

A 3D microstructure of the non-woven gas diffusion layers (GDLs) of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) is reconstructed using a stochastic method. For a commercial GDL, ... Read more

Sepehr Sima Afrookhteh, Jalil Jamali, Mohsen Shakeric, Majid Baniassadi

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The Application of Hierarchical Structures in Energy Devices: New Insights into the Design of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells with Enhanced Mass Transport

The Application of Hierarchical Structures in Energy Devices: New Insights into the Design of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells with Enhanced Mass Transport

Mass transport can significantly limit the rate of reaction and lead to concentration polarization in electrochemical devices, especially under the conditions of high operating current density.

In this study we investigate hierarchically structured micro-tubular solid
oxide fuel cells (MT-SOFC) fabricated by phase inversion technique and quantitatively assess the mass transport and electrochemical performance improvement compared to a conventional tubular SOFC. We present pioneer... Read more

Xuekun Lu, Tao Li, Antonio Bertei, Jason I S Cho , Thomas M.M. Heenan , Rabuni Mohamad, Kang Li, Dan JL Brett, Paul R Shearing

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In Situ Synthesized La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3−δ–Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95 Nanocomposite Cathodes via a Modified Sol–Gel Process for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

In Situ Synthesized La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3−δ–Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95 Nanocomposite Cathodes via a Modified Sol–Gel Process for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Composite cathodes comprising nanoscale
powders are expected to impart with high specific surface
area and triple phase boundary (TPB) density, which will lead
to better performance.

However, uniformly mixing nanosized heterophase powders remains a challenge due to their high surface energy and thus ease with which they agglomerate into their individual phases during the mixing and sintering
processes. In this study, we successfully synthesized La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe... Read more

Dong Woo Joh, Areum Cha, Jeong Hwa Park, Kyeong Joon Kim, Kyung Taek Bae, Doyeub Kim, Young Ki Choi, Hyegsoon An, Ji Su Shin, Kyung Joong Yoon, and Kang Taek Lee

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Correlation between triple phase boundary and the microstructure of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell anodes

Correlation between triple phase boundary and the microstructure of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell anodes

This study aims to correlate the active triple phase boundaries (TPBs) to the variation of as-prepared anode microstructures and Ni densifications based on the reconstructed 3D volume of an SOFC anode, providing a point of comparison with theoretical studies that reveal the relationship of TPBs and the material microstructure using randomly packed spheres models.

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Xuekun Lu, Thomas M.M. Heenan, Josh J. Bailey, Tao Li, Kang Li, Daniel J.L. Brett, Paul R. Shearing, Electrochemical Innovation Lab, Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London

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The fractal nature of the three-phase boundary: A heuristic approach to the degradation of nanostructured solid oxide fuel cell anodes

The fractal nature of the three-phase boundary: A heuristic approach to the degradation of nanostructured solid oxide fuel cell anodes

Nickel/zirconia-based nanostructured electrodes for solid oxide fuel cells suffer from poor stability even at intermediate temperature.

This study quantifies the electrochemical and microstructural degradation of nanostructured electrodes by combining 3D tomography, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and mechanistic modeling. For the first time, the electrochemical degradation of nanostructured electrodes is quantified according to the fractal nature of the three-phase bounda... Read more

A. Bertei, E. Ruiz-Trejo, K. Kareh, V. Yufit, X. Wang, F. Tariq, N.P. Brandon,

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New Method for the Deposition of Nickel Oxide in Porous Scaffolds for Electrodes in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Electrolyzers

New Method for the Deposition of Nickel Oxide in Porous Scaffolds for Electrodes in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Electrolyzers

A simple chemical bath deposition is used to coat a complex porous ceramic scaffold with a conformal Ni layer.

The resulting composite is used as a solid oxide fuel cell electrode, and its electrochemical response is measured in humidified hydrogen. X‐ray tomography is used to determine the microstructural characteristics of the uncoated and Ni‐coated porous structure, which include the surface area to total volume, the radial pore size, and the size of the necks between the pores.... Read more

Dr. Enrique Ruiz‐Trejo, Milla Puolamaa, Brian Sum, Dr. Farid Tariq, Dr. Vladimir Yufit, Prof. Nigel P. Brandon

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Quantification of the degradation of Ni-YSZ anodes upon redox cycling

Quantification of the degradation of Ni-YSZ anodes upon redox cycling

Ni-YSZ anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells are vulnerable to microstructural damage during redox cycling leading to a decrease in the electrochemical performance.

 

  • Quantification of redox damage by coupling 3D tomography, EIS and nanoindentation.
  • YSZ fracture, Ni detachment and agglomeration led to irreversible mechanical damage.
  • Ni nanoparticles obtained upon redox cycling improve electrochemical performance.
  • Loss in TPB densi... Read more

Bowen Song, Enrique Ruiz-Trejo, Antonio Bertei, Nigel P.Brandon

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