Welcome to the Amira-Avizo Software Use Case Gallery

Below you will find a collection of use cases of our 3D data visualization and analysis software. These use cases include scientific publications, articles, papers, posters, presentations or even videos that show how Amira-Avizo Software is used to address various scientific and industrial research topics.

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Characterization of 3D fracture evolution in concrete using in-situ X-Ray Computed Tomography testing and Digital Volume Correlation

Characterization of 3D fracture evolution in concrete using in-situ X-Ray Computed Tomography testing and Digital Volume Correlation

X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) is a powerful technology that can accurately image the internal structures of composite and heterogeneous materials in three-dimensions (3D). In this study, in-situ micro XCT tests of concrete specimens under progressive compressive loading are carried out. The aim of the observations is to gain a better understanding of 3D fracture and failure mechanisms at the meso-scale. To characterise the fracture evolution as the deformation increases, two methods are use... Read more

College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University | School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, the University of Manchester | Manchester X-ray Imaging Facility | Oxford Martin School and Department of Materials

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Multi-modal plasma focused ion beam serial section tomography of an organic paint coating

Multi-modal plasma focused ion beam serial section tomography of an organic paint coating

Pigment distributions have a critical role in the corrosion protection properties of organic paint coatings, but they are difficult to image in 3D over statistically significant volumes and at sufficiently high spatial resolutions required for detailed analysis. Here we report, for the first time, large volume analytical serial sectioning tomography of an organic composite coating using a xenon Plasma Focused Ion Beam (PFIB) combined with secondary electron imaging, energy dispersive X-ray (E... Read more

Zhong Xiangli, M. Grace Burke, Philip J. Withers, Zhang Xun, Zhou Xiaorong, Timothy L. Burnett, Liu Yanwen, Stuart B. Lyon, Simon R.Gibbon

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Three-Dimensional In Situ XCT Characterisation and FE Modelling of Cracking in Concrete

Three-Dimensional In Situ XCT Characterisation and FE Modelling of Cracking in Concrete

An improved understanding of 3D cracking in concrete can be achieved by multiscale experiments and numerical modelling based on realistic microstructures, for the development of materials with higher strength, durability, and fracture resistance.

Three-dimensional (3D) characterisation and modelling of cracking in concrete have been always of great importance and interest in civil engineering. In this study, an in situ microscale X-ray computed tomography (XCT) test was carried out to ... Read more

Wenyuan Ren, Zhenjun Yang, Rajneesh Sharma, Samuel A. McDonald, Paul M. Mummery

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Three-dimensional image based modelling of transport parameters in lithium–sulfur batteries

Three-dimensional image based modelling of transport parameters in lithium–sulfur batteries

An elemental sulfur electrode was imaged with X-ray micro and nano computed tomography and segmented into its constituent phases. Morphological parameters including phase fractions and pore and particle size distributions were calculated directly from labelled image data, and flux based simulations were performed to determine the effective molecular diffusivity of the pore phase and electrical conductivity of the conductive carbon and binder phase, D... Read more

Chun Tan, Matthew D. R. Kok , Sohrab R. Daemi , Daniel J. L. Brett and Paul R. Shearing

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Multiscale tomographic analysis of the thermal failure of Na-Ion batteries

Multiscale tomographic analysis of the thermal failure of Na-Ion batteries

In recent years, the ability to examine the processes that cause the catastrophic failure of batteries as a result of thermal runaway has improved substantially. In this work, the effect of thermal runaway on the microstructure of the electrodes of a Na-ion battery is examined using X-ray computed tomography for the first time. The thermal failure induced via accelerating rate calorimetry enabled the examination of failed electrodes, which were subsequently compared with fresh s... Read more

Robinson, J. B., Heenan, T. M. M., Jervis, J. R., Tan, C., Kendrick, E., Brett, D. J. L., & Shearing, P. R.

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In situ compression and X-ray computed tomography of flow battery electrodes

In situ compression and X-ray computed tomography of flow battery electrodes

Redox flow batteries offer a potential solution to an increase in renewable energy generation on the grid by offering long-term, large-scale storage and regulation of power. However, they are currently underutilised due to cost and performance issues, many of which are linked to the microstructure of the porous carbon electrodes used. Here, for the first time, we offer a detailed study of the in situ effects of compression on a commercially available carbon felt electrode. Visualisation ... Read more

Rhodri Jervis , Matt D.R. Kok , Tobias P. Neville , Quentin Meyer , Leon D. Brown , Francesco Iacoviello , Jeff T. Gostick , Dan J.L. Brett , Paul R. Shearing

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Three-dimensional thermal stress analysis of the re-oxidized Ni-YSZ anode functional layer in solid oxide fuel cells

Three-dimensional thermal stress analysis of the re-oxidized Ni-YSZ anode functional layer in solid oxide fuel cells

Nickel-yttria-stabilized zirconia (Ni-YSZ) cermet is widely used as an anode material in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs); however, Ni re-oxidation causes critical problems due to volume expansion, which causes high thermal stress. We fabricated a Ni-YSZ anode functional layer (AFL), which is an essential component in high-performance SOFCs, and re-oxidized it to investigate the related three-dimensional (3D) microstructural and thermo-mechanical effects. A 3D model of the re-oxidized AFL ... Read more

Jun Woo Kim, Kiho Bae, Hyun Joong Kim, Ji-won Son, Namkeun Kim, Stefan Stenfelt, Fritz B. Prinz, Joon Hyung Shim

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A three-dimensional heterogeneity analysis of electrochemical energy conversion in SOFC anodes using electron nanotomography and mathematical modeling

A three-dimensional heterogeneity analysis of electrochemical energy conversion in SOFC anodes using electron nanotomography and mathematical modeling

In this paper a fully three dimensional, multiphase, micro-scale solid oxide fuel cellanode transport phenomena numerical model is proposed and verified. The Butler-Volmer model was combined with empirical relations for conductivity and diffusivity – notably the Fuller-Shetler-Giddings equation, and the Fickian modelfor transport of gas reagents. FIB-SEM tomography of a commercial SOFC stack anode was performed and the resulting images were processed to acquire input data. ... Read more

Tomasz A. Prokop, Katarzyna Berent, Hiroshi Iwai, Janusz S.Szmyd, Grzegorz Brus

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X-ray computed tomography comparison of individual and parallel assembled commercial lithium iron phosphate batteries at end of life after high rate cycling

X-ray computed tomography comparison of individual and parallel assembled commercial lithium iron phosphate batteries at end of life after high rate cycling

X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) across multiple length scales is utilized for the first time to investigate the physical abuse of high C-rate pulsed discharge on cells wired individually and in parallel.. Manufactured lithium iron phosphate cells boasting high rate capability were pulse power tested in both wiring conditions with high discharge currents of 10C for a high number of cycles (up to 1200) until end of life (<80% of initial discharge capacity retained). The parallel ass... Read more

Rachel Carter, Brett Huhman, Corey T. Love, Iryna V. Zenyuk

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Evaluating microstructure evolution in an SOFC electrode using digital volume correlation

Evaluating microstructure evolution in an SOFC electrode using digital volume correlation

Degradation mechanisms within solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) during thermal cycling limit operational start-up times and cell lifetime, and must therefore be better understood and mitigated. This work explores such mechanisms using digital volume correlation (DVC) techniques applied to lab-based X-ray tomograms where the microstructural evolution is evaluated during the operational cycling of a Ni–YSZ/YSZ cell. To emulate reduced start-up times, five tomograms were collected over four operat... Read more

T. M. M. Heenan, X. Lu,, D. P. Finegan,, J. Robinson, F. Iacoviello, J. J. Bailey, D. J. L. Brett and P. R. Shearing

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4D visualisation of in situ nano-compression of Li-ion cathode materials to mimic early stage calendering

4D visualisation of in situ nano-compression of Li-ion cathode materials to mimic early stage calendering

Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries operate via electrochemical reactions between positive and negative electrodes, formed by complex porous microstructures. An improved understanding of these materials can lead to a greater insight into the link between microscopic electrode morphology and macroscopic performance. The practice of calendering electrodes after manufacturing has been widely used to increase the volumetric energy density and improve the electrical contact between electrode... Read more

S. R. Daemi,X. Lu, D. Sykes, J. Behnsen, C. Tan, A. Palacios-Padros, J. Cookson, E. Petrucco, P. J. Withers, D. J. L. Brett and P. R. Shearing

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Enhanced Water Management of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells with Additive-Containing Microporous Layers.

Enhanced Water Management of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells with Additive-Containing Microporous Layers.

This work describes the performance improvement of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell with a novel class of microporous layers (MPLs) that incorporates hydrophilic additives: one with 30 μm aluminosilicate fibers and another with multiwalled carbon nanotubes with a domain size of 5 μm. Higher current densities at low potentials were observed for cells with the additive-containing MPLs compared to a baseline cell with a conventional MPL, which correlate with improvements in water management. Th... Read more

Dusan Spernjak, Rangachary Mukundan, Rodney L. Borup, Liam Connolly, Benjamin Zackin, Vincent De Andrade, Michael Wojcik, Dilworth Y. Parkinson, David Jacobson, Daniel Seth Hussey, Karren L More, Thomas Chan, Adam Z Weber, and Iryna V. Zenyuk

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High performance anode with dendritic porous structure for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells

High performance anode with dendritic porous structure for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells

A dendritic porous supported microstructure simultaneously creates small pore size and broad gas diffusion pathways in a solid oxide fuel cell anode membrane. This microstructure also achieves pore sizes that reduce with increasing depth within the membrane without increasing the structure tortuosity. Such a microstructure supplies high triple phase boundary density, fast gas diffusion and low polarization resistance. Here we characterise the performance of a porous anode with such a dendriti... Read more

Xin Shao, William D.A. Rickard, Dehua Dong, Huu Dang , Martin Saunders, Aaron Dodd, Gordon Parkinson, Chun-Zhu Li

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Four-Dimensional Studies of Morphology Evolution in Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

Four-Dimensional Studies of Morphology Evolution in Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

Lithium sulfur (Li–S) batteries have great potential as a successor to Li-ion batteries, but their commercialization has been complicated by a multitude of issues stemming from their complex multiphase chemistry. In situ X-ray tomography investigations enable direct observations to be made about a battery, providing unprecedented insight into the microstructural evolution of the sulfur cathode and shedding light on the reaction kinetics of the sulfur phase. Here, for the first time, the mor... Read more

Chun Tan, Thomas M. M. Heenan, Ralf F. Ziesche, Sohrab R. Daemi, Jennifer Hack, Maximilian Maier, Shashidhara Marathe, Christoph Rau, Daniel J. L. Brett, Paul R. Shearing

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Cryo-STEM mapping of solid–liquid interfaces and dendrites in lithium-metal batteries

Cryo-STEM mapping of solid–liquid interfaces and dendrites in lithium-metal batteries

Solid–liquid interfaces are important in a range of chemical, physical and biological processes but are often not fully understood owing to the lack of high-resolution characterization methods that are compatible with both solid and liquid components. For example, the related processes of dendritic deposition of lithium metal and the formation of solid–electrolyte interphase layers are known to be key determinants of battery safety and performance in high-energy-density lithium-metal bat... Read more

Michael J. Zachman, Zhengyuan Tu, Snehashis Choudhury, Lynden A. Archer & Lena F. Kourkoutis

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A numerical analysis of unsteady transport phenomena in a Direct Internal Reforming Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

A numerical analysis of unsteady transport phenomena in a Direct Internal Reforming Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

Growing popularity and rapid development of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) stem for their potential to become a gamechanger in the field of clean power generation technologies.

In this paper, a transient microstructure-oriented numerical simulation of a planar Direct Internal Reforming Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (DIR-SOFC) is delivered. The performance criteria in a direct steam reforming for a fuel starvation scenario are analyzed in order to optimize the underlying process. The proposed t... Read more

Maciej Chalusiak, Michal Wrobel, Marcin Mozdzierz, Katarzyna Berent, Janusz S. Szmyd, Shinji Kimijima, Grzegorz Brus

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A novel approach for the quantification of inhomogeneous 3D current distribution in fuel cell electrodes

A novel approach for the quantification of inhomogeneous 3D current distribution in fuel cell electrodes

The electrode microstructural properties significantly influence the efficiency and durability of many electrochemical devices including solid oxide fuel cells. Despite the possibility of simulating the electrochemical phenomena within real three-dimensional microstructures, the potential of such 3D microstructural information has not yet been fully exploited. We introduce here a completely new methodology for the advanced characterization of inhomogeneous current distribution base... Read more

A.Bertei, V.Yufit, F.Tariq, N.P.Brandon

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4D imaging of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell catalyst layers by soft X-ray spectro-tomography

4D imaging of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell catalyst layers by soft X-ray spectro-tomography

4D imaging – the three-dimensional distributions of chemical species determined using multi-energy X-ray tomography – of cathode catalyst layers of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEM-FC) has been measured by scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) spectro-tomography at the C 1s and F 1s edges. In order to monitor the effects of radiation damage on the composition and 3D structure of the perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomer, the same volume was measu... Read more

Juan Wu, Lis G.A.Melo, Xiaohui Zhu, Marcia M.West, Viatcheslav Berejnov, Darija Susac, Juergen Stumper, Adam P.Hitchcock

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The use of contrast enhancement techniques in X-ray imaging of lithium–ion battery electrodes

The use of contrast enhancement techniques in X-ray imaging of lithium–ion battery electrodes

Understanding the microstructural morphology of Li–ion battery electrodes is crucial to improving the electrochemical performance of current Li–ion battery systems and in developing next-generation power systems. The use of 3D X-ray imaging techniques, which are continuously evolving, provides a noninvasive platform to study the relationship between electrode microstructure and performance at various time and length scales. In addition to characterizing a weakly (X-ray) absorbing graphite... Read more

Oluwadamilola O. Taiwo , Donal P. Finegan , Jeff Gelb , Christian Holzner , Daniel J.L. Brett , Paul R. Shearing

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Operando Visualization and Multi-scale Tomography Studies of Dendrite Formation and Dissolution in Zinc Batteries

Operando Visualization and Multi-scale Tomography Studies of Dendrite Formation and Dissolution in Zinc Batteries

Alternative battery technologies are required to meet growing energy demands and address the limitations of present technologies. As such, it is necessary to look beyond lithium-ion batteries. Zinc batteries enable high power density while being sourced from ubiquitous and cost-effective materials. This paper presents, for the first time known to the authors, multi-length scale tomography studies of failure mechanisms in zinc batteries with and without commercial microporous separators. In bo... Read more

Vladimir Yufit, Farid Tariq David S. Eastwood Moshiel Biton Billy Wu Peter D. Lee Nigel P. Brandon

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Porous Metal–Organic Frameworks for Enhanced Performance Silicon Anodes in Lithium-Ion Batteries

Porous Metal–Organic Frameworks for Enhanced Performance Silicon Anodes in Lithium-Ion Batteries

Maintaining the physical integrity of electrode microstructures in Li-ion batteries is critical to significantly extend their cycle life. This is especially important for high-capacity anode materials such as silicon, whose operational volume expansion exerts huge internal stress within the anode, resulting in electrode destruction and capacity fade. In this study, we demonstrate that by incorporating metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) with carboxylate organic linkers into Si-based anodes, a s... Read more

Romeo Malik, Melanie. J. Loveridge, Luke J. Williams, Qianye Huang, Geoff West, Paul R. Shearing, Rohit Bhagat, Richard I. Walton

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